CEFR Scale

Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)

LevelListeningReadingSpoken ProductionSpoken InteractionWriting
A1Can understand simple, standard speech which is very slow and carefully articulated. Can recognise familiar words and very basic phrases concerning him/herself, his/her family and immediate concrete surroundings when people speak slowly and clearly. Can understand very short, simple texts, for example on notices and posters or in catalogues, picking up familiar names and basic phrases one at a time and rereading as required. Can use simple phrases and sentences to describe what he/she does, where he/she lives and people he/she knows. Can interact in a simple way provided the other person is prepared to repeat or rephrase things at a slower rate of speech and help with formulation. Can ask and answer simple questions in areas of immediate need or on very familiar topics. Can write a short, simple message or postcard, for example sending holiday greetings. Can fill in forms with personal details, for example entering name, nationality and address on a hotel registration form.
A2Can understand clear, slow, standard speech in compliance with STCW code , with all its areas pertaining to onboard elementary safety matters , guest and crew safety, and department-related service. Can catch the main point in short, clear, simple messages and announcements.Can understand short, simple texts containing high frequency vocabulary, including symbols , signals and common expressions and terms related to STCW. Can find specific, predictable information on signage, manuals, tickets, and department-related literature.Can use a series of phrases and sentences to describe in simple terms related to passenger safety familiarization and exercises , department-related guest interaction, and simple instructions and advice related to life on board.Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring familiarization and direct exchange of STCW -related information. Can handle very short social exchanges with coworkers and guests related to department services and safety, including instructions, even though he/she cannot usually keep the conversation going of his/her own accord.Can write short, simple notes and messages relating to matters in occupational safety -related areas of immediate need, linking a series of simple phrases and sentences with simple connectors like “and” , “but” and “because”.
B1Can understand the main points of clear standard speech on familiar matters regularly encountered in department-related interactions with guests and fellow staff. Can understand the main point of many interactions of professional interest when the delivery is relatively slow and clear.Can understand factual texts on related to his/her department, focusing mainly on high frequency everyday and job-related language. Can recognize significant points in material covering department-related subjects. Can understand the description of department-related duties and instructions.Can speak comprehensibly to give job-related instructions and advice, and to describe events, needs, and duties. Can briefly give reasons and explanations as needed. Can speak at greater length on department-related matters with superiors, peers, and guests.Can exploit a wide range of simple language to deal with most situations likely to arise while carrying out job duties. Can enter unprepared into conversation on topics that are pertinent to work duties and to everyday life (e.g. family, hobbies, work, travel and current events).Can write simple texts on topics related to department duties by linking a series of shorter discrete elements into a linear sequence. Can write job-related missives and summaries relating events, experiences, instructions, and impressions.
B2Can understand standard speech spoken at a normal rate and follow even complex lines of discussion related to life aboard the ship, including job duties in interactions with guests and peers. Can understand the essentials of most guest interactions using everyday terms and in standard dialect.Can understand articles and reports concerned with department duties and problems in which the writers adopt particular stances or viewpoints. Can understand contemporary literature and in-depth instructions and manuals. Can adapt style and speed of reading to different texts and purposes, using appropriate reference sources selectively.Can present clear, detailed descriptions on a wide range of subjects related to his/her job, especially for guests and fellow department crew, expanding and supporting ideas with subsidiary points and relevant examples. Can explain a viewpoint and give instructions on department duties and issues, giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible as it pertains to department duties. Can take an active part in discussion in job-related contexts. Can account for and sustain views clearly by providing relevant explanations and arguments, with required levels of service and professionalism.Can write clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects related to his/her job. Can write an essay or report, passing on information or giving reasons in support of or against a particular point of view. Can write letters highlighting the significance of events and experiences as it relates to onboard duties.
C1Can understand lectures and discussions on complex topics beyond his/her field, though he/she may need to confirm occasional details, especially if the accent is unfamiliar. Can understand even when the talk is not clearly structured and when relationships are only implied and not signaled explicitly. Can understand long and complex factual and literary texts, appreciating distinctions of style. Can understand specialised articles and longer technical instructions, even when they do not relate to his/her field. Can present clear, detailed descriptions of complex subjects integrating sub-themes, developing particular points and rounding off with an appropriate conclusion. Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously. Can use language flexibly and effectively for social and professional purposes. Can formulate ideas and opinions appropriately and relate contributions skillfully to those of other speakers. Can write clear, well-structured text and express points of view at some length. Can write detailed expositions of complex subjects in a letter, an essay or a report, underlining the salient issues. Can write different kinds of texts in a style appropriate to the reader in mind.
C2Can understand virtually any kind of spoken language, even when delivered at fast native speed and employing a high degree of colloquialism, regional usage or unfamiliar terminology.Can understand with ease virtually all forms of the written language, including abstract, complex texts such as specialised articles and literary works. Can appreciate subtle distinctions of style and implicit as well as explicit meaning. Can present a clear, smoothlyflowing description or argument in a style appropriate to the context and with an effective logical structure which helps the recipient to notice significant points. Can take part effortlessly in any discussion. Can express him/herself fluently and convey finer shades of meaning precisely. Can backtrack and restructure around any difficulty of formulation so smoothly that other people are hardly aware of it. Can write clear, smoothly-flowing, well-structured text in an appropriate style. Can write complex reports or articles which present a case with an effective logical structure which helps the recipient to notice significant points. Can write reviews of professional or literary works.
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